For the first time we have defined naive, central memory, effector memory and differentiated effector porcine CD8 T cells and analyzed their distribution in lymphoid and respiratory tissues after influenza infection or immunization, using peptide-MHC tetramers of three influenza nucleoprotein (NP) epitopes. The hierarchy of response to the three epitopes changes during the response in different tissues. Most NP-specific CD8 T cells in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and lung are tissue resident memory cells (TRM) that express CD69 and downregulate CD45RA and CCR7. NP-specific cells isolated from BAL express genes characteristic of TRM, but gene expression differs at 7, 21 and 63 days post infection. In all tissues the frequency of NP-specific CD8 cells declines over 63 days almost to background levels but is best maintained in BAL. The kinetic of influenza specific memory CD8 T cell in this natural host species differs from that in small animal models.
Spatial, temporal and molecular dynamics of swine influenza virus-specific CD8 tissue resident memory T cells
Martini V, Edmans M, Gubbins S, Jayaraman S, Paudyal B, Morgan S, McNee A, Morin T, Rijal P, Gerner W, Sewell A K, Inoue R, Bailey M, Connelley T, Charleston B, Townsend A, Beverley P, Tchilian E