Swine vesicular disease virus

Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) infects only swine. It belongs to the genus Enterovirus, in the family Picornaviridae. Virulence of the different strains can vary. SVDV is an enveloped virus containing a capsid and single stranded RNA genome.

  • Swine vesicular disease is a notifiable disease and should be reported.
    Please see the Defra website for advice on how to spot and report the disease.

Associated diseases:

SVDV causes Swine vesicular disease, which can present as a subclinical, mild or severe vesicular condition. It is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and therefore laboratory testing is needed to confirm which virus is present. The disease usually affects younger animals more severely, and although morbidity may reach 100%, no deaths are usually associated with the disease.

Clinical signs:

  • Sudden appearance of lameness
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vesicles develop on feet, snout, lips, tongue, teats

Disease transmission:

SVDV can infect swine through direct contact i.e. lesions in skin and mucosa, ingestion and inhalation. The spread of contaminated faeces is a major source of infection, often with vehicles aiding the spread. Contaminated feed can also be a source.

Disease prevalence:

SVD is regularly reported in from southern Italy and occasionally from other European countries. It has previously been found in various parts of eastern Asia and is still thought to be endemic there.

Impact for Society – what are we doing?

Due to the similarity of clinacal signs between FMD and SVD, the Institute provides dianostic services to the European Union in order to distinguish between the two.

Research papers

Fowler V L, Howson E L A, Madi M, Mioulet V, Caiusi C, Pauszek S J, Rodriguez L L, King D P (2016)

Journal of Virological Methods 234, 123-131
Publisher’s version:
Bruhn C A W, Nielsen S C A, Samaniego J A, Wadsworth J, Knowles N J, Gilbert M T P (2015)

Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health 2015 (1), 289-303
Nielsen S C A, Bruhn C A W, Samaniego J A, Wadsworth J, Knowles N J, Gilbert M T P (2014)

PLoS ONE 9 (5), e97180
Ferris N P, Clavijo A, Yang M, Velazquez-Salinas L, Nordengrahn A, Hutchings G H, Kristersson T, Merza M (2012)

Journal of Virological Methods 180 (1-2), 96-100
McMenamy M J, McKillen J, Reid S M, Hjertner B, King D P, Adair B, Allan G (2011)

Journal of Virological Methods 171 (1), 219-224

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