Workshop cluster 1, a gammadelta T cell specific receptor is phosphorylated and down regulated by activation induced Src family kinase activity
Workshop cluster 1+ gamma delta (WC1+??) T cells have been shown to play important roles in the immune response to infections. WC1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, uniquely expressed on the surface of ?? T cells of ruminants and pigs. A role for WC1 in inducing a reversible growth arrest of ?? T cells has been previously demonstrated. WC1-induced growth inhibition has been shown to be overcome following ?? T cell activation with Concanavalin A (Con A). However, molecular mechanism(s) by which WC1 signalling might be modulated following activation have not been elucidated. In this paper we show that Con A activation of bovine lymphocytes induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of WC1 in a Src-family kinase-dependent manner. Src family kinases also phosphorylated WC1 in a COS-7 co-transfection system. Furthermore, a glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-WC1 cytoplasmic domain fusion protein was directly phosphorylated by recombinant Lck (rLck) in vitro. The Y1303 of WC1 was identified by mutational analysis as the only one of the five WC1 tyrosine residues to be critical for Src family phosphorylation. The importance of activation-induced Src family activity for WC1 function was investigated with the Src-family specific inhibitor PP2. These studies show that the surface levels of WC1 are down regulated in a Src-family-dependent manner following activation of bovine lymphocytes. Down regulation of surface WC1 was accompanied by a Src-family-dependent accumulation of intracellular WC1. These data show that WC1 is modulated by activation-induced tyrosine phosphorylation thus providing a new insight into the signalling mechanisms by which WC1 and ?? T cell activation are regulated in this important and unique cell population.