The deployment of effective veterinary vaccines has had a major impact on improving food security and consequently human health. Effective vaccines were essential for the global eradication of Rinderpest and the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease in some regions of the world. Effective vaccines also underpin the development of modern intensive food production systems such as poultry and aquaculture. However, for some high consequence diseases there are still significant challenges to develop effective vaccines. There is a strong track record in veterinary medicine of early adoption of new technologies to produce vaccines. Here we provide examples of new technologies to interrogate B cell responses and using structural biology to improve antigens.