Evaluation of the delivery of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus as a unit solid dose injectable vaccine

Solid dose vaccine formulation and delivery systems offer potential advantages over traditional liquid vaccine formulations. In addition to enhanced thermostability, needle-free delivery of unit solid dose injectable (USDI) vaccines offers safe, rapid, and error-free administration, with applicability to both human and animal health. Solid dose formulation technologies can be adapted for delivery of different vaccine formats including live attenuated vaccines, which remain the gold standard for many disease targets. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) cause one of the most economically important diseases affecting the global pig industry. Despite several shortcomings, live attenuated vaccines are widely used to control PRRSV. We optimised a freeze-dried USDI formulation of live attenuated PRRSV-1, which fully retained infectious titre, and evaluated its immunogenicity in comparison to virus delivered in liquid suspension via intramuscular and subcutaneous needle inoculation. Pigs vaccinated with the USDI formulation displayed vaccine viraemia, and PRRSV-specific antibody and T cell responses comparable to animals immunised with the liquid vaccine. The USDI vaccine formulation was stable for at least 6 months when stored refrigerated. These data demonstrate the potential for a solid dose vaccine delivery system as an alternative to conventional needle-syringe delivery of live attenuated PRRSV vaccines.

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