The Pirbright Institute publication directory contains details of selected publications written by our researchers.

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Walker A R, Fletcher J D, McKellar S B, Bell L J, Brown C G D (1985)

The maintenance and survival of Theileria annulata in colonies of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 79 (2), 199-209
Publisher’s version:
Reid G D F, Bell L J (1984)

The development of Theileria annulata in the salivary glands of the vector tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 78 (4), 409-421
Publisher’s version:


The development at 28 degrees C of Theileria annulata (Hissar) in the salivary glands of its tick vector, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, was studied using Giemsa-stained smears, methyl green-pyronin-stained preparations of whole glands, and electron microscopy. Nymphs which had engorged on T. annulata-infected calves showed kinetes in the haemolymph from Day 7 to Day 14 post engorgement, when all ticks had completed moult. Intracellular sporonts were observed within salivary gland acini from Day 7 onwards and these developed by rapid nuclear division and cytoplasmic proliferation to form primary sporoblasts. Further development was stimulated by feeding on a rabbit or by incubation at 36 degrees C. The primary sporoblasts appeared to become organized into membrane-bound subunits. Within 48 hours of attachment to the host, or 72 hours of 36 degrees C incubation, these units dissociated to form secondary sporoblasts. The final phase of development resulted in the progressive formation of discrete, uninuclear sporozoites within these secondary sporoblasts. No morphological differences were observed in parasite maturation between the fed and incubated groups although development was retarded by at least 24 hours in the latter. In the incubated group there was also a marked decrease in the degree of synchrony of development which resulted in fewer sporozoites being present at any one time.
Bell L J, Reid G D F (1981)

Theileria in tick organ culture

Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75 (6), 897-898
Publisher’s version:
Walker A R, Brown C G D, Bell L J, McKellar S B (1979)

Artificial infection of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus with Theileria parva

Research in Veterinary Science 26 (2), 264-265
Publisher’s version:
Walker A R, McKellar S B, Bell L J, Brown C G D (1979)

Rapid quantitative assessment of Theileria infection in ticks

Tropical Animal Health and Production 11 (1), 21-26
Goatley L C, Reis A L, Portugal R, Goldswain H, Shimmon G L, Hargreaves Z, Ho C S, Montoya M, Sanchez-Cordon P J, Taylor G, Dixon L K, Netherton C L (234)

A pool of eight virally vectored African swine fever antigens protect pigs against fatal disease

Vaccines 2020 (8), 2


Classical approaches to African swine fever virus (ASFV) vaccine development have not been successful; inactivated virus does not provide protection and use of live attenuated viruses generated by passage in tissue culture had a poor safety profile. Current African swine fever (ASF) vaccine research focuses on the development of modified live viruses by targeted gene deletion or subunit vaccines. The latter approach would be differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA)-compliant, but information on which viral proteins to include in a subunit vaccine is lacking. Our previous work used DNA-prime/vaccinia-virus boost to screen 40 ASFV genes for immunogenicity, however this immunization regime did not protect animals after challenge. Here we describe the induction of both antigen and ASFV-specific antibody and cellular immune responses by different viral-vectored pools of antigens selected based on their immunogenicity in pigs. Immunization with one of these pools, comprising eight viral-vectored ASFV genes, protected 100% of pigs from fatal disease after challenge with a normally lethal dose of virulent ASFV. This data provide the basis for the further development of a subunit vaccine against this devastating disease.


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