Publications

The Pirbright Institute publication directory contains details of selected publications written by our researchers.

There were a total of 2297 results for your search.

Abstract

To determine. in the acute form of African swine fever (ASF), the relationship between the appearance of pulmonary oedema and viral replication and expression of cytokines by pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs), 14 pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with ASF virus (strain Espana' 70) and killed in pairs on days 1-7 post-inoculation. Samples of lung were examined immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. The immunohistochemical study was carried out with antibodies against interleukin-1 alpha IL-1alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha TNF-alpha), viral antigen of ASF (Vp73) and a myeloid marker (SWC3). Viral replication was observed mainly in PIMs, which at the same time showed intense activation. accompanied by the expression of IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha. The occurrence of interstitial oedema, neutrophil sequestration and fibrin microthrombi in septal capillaries coincided with high degrees of cytokine expression by infected PIMs. Alveolar macrophages did not show a significant change in cytokine expression as a result of ASF infection, and viral replication was detected in only a low percentage of these cells. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Abstract

In contrast to the results of previous in vitro studies, experimental infection of calves with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) was found to induce strong alpha/beta and gamma interferon responses in gnotobiotic animals. These responses were associated with depressed levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in serum. The results of this study indicate that the immunosuppression caused by ncpBVDV is not associated with low interferon responses or elevated levels of TGF-beta.

Abstract

Cell-mediated immunity and CD4(+) cells in particular are important for the resolution of acute infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). CD4(+) T cells were shown to recognise virus-infected and non-infectious-protein-pulsed APCs, whereas CD8(+) T cells recognised only virus-infected APCs. T cell recognition was strain cross-reactive and MHC-restricted. Using native and recombinant antigens, we identified the structural glycoprotein E2 and the non-structural protein NS3 as dominant CD4(+) T cell determinants. The repertoire of CD4(+) T cell responses to E2 and NS3 was examined using inbred, homozygous cattle and overlapping synthetic peptides. The repertoire was biased toward conserved regions of NS3 and excluded the hypervariable regions of E2. The number of peptides that were recognised varied between animals but patterns could be distinguished in those animals that shared the same DRB3(*) allele. Of particular interest were: (i) a determinant that was recognised in the context of both DRB3(*) alleles (i.e. DRB3(*)2002 and DRB3(*)0701), (ii) two determinants that were juxtaposed to B cell sites, and (iii) a determinant that had structural analogy with a NS3 epitope previously described for the closely related hepatitis C virus. The minimum stimulatory sequence of the latter, NS3(397-414), was located to residues NS3(400-410).

Abstract

The replicase protein nsP2 of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has a 648RRR nuclear localization signal and is transported to the nucleus. SFV-RDR has a single amino acid change which disrupts this sequence and nsP2 nuclear transport. In BHK cells, SFV4 and SFV-RDR replicate to high titers, but SFV-RDR is less virulent in mice. We compared the replication of SFV4 and SFV-RDR in adult mouse brain. Both SFV4 and SFV-RDR were neuroinvasive following intraperitoneal inoculation. SFV4 spread rapidly throughout the brain, whereas SFV-RDR infection was confined to small foci of cells. Both viruses infected neurons and oligodendrocytes. Both viruses induced apoptosis in cultured BHK cells but not in the cells of the adult mouse brain. SFV-RDR infection of mice lacking alpha/beta interferon receptors resulted in widespread virus distribution in the brain. Thus, a component of the viral replicase plays an important role in the neuropathogenesis of SFV.
Hervas J, Sanchez-Cordon P J, de Lara F C, Carrasco L, Gomez-Villamandos J C (2002)

Hepatitis associated with herpes viral infection in the tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii)

Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B-Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health 49 (2), 111-114

Abstract

Herpesvirus infection in tortoises is largely characterized by the development of respiratory clinical signs. Usually lesions develop in the respiratory, oral pharyngeal, intestinal tract and are accompanied by cutaneous and ocular lesions. In chelonids affected by herpesvirus, systemic-type lesions in organs such as the liver and spleen are commonly observed. In this paper we describe a case of multifocal necrotic hepatitis associated with herpesviruses in an adult female land tortoise of the species Testudo horsfieldii. This article is the first description of a viral hepatitis in Testudo spp. with lesions compatible with herpesvirus infection, with no clinical signs or lesions in the respiratory system, oral cavity or other organs.

Abstract

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) envelope glycoprotein Erns interacts with highly sulphated heparin-like glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) located on the cell surface as an early step in virus infection of cells. Site-directed mutagenesis of recombinant Erns was undertaken and analysis of mutants by heparin-affinity chromatography and cell surface binding showed that a cluster of basic amino acids (480KKLENKSK487) near the C terminus of Erns was essential for binding. Mutants with amino acid substitutions of lysine residues 481 and 485 in Erns reduced the binding of Erns to immobilized heparin and cellular GAGs but retained ribonuclease activity. In contrast to normal Erns, Erns that was unable to bind to cells also failed to inhibit BVDV infection of cells when the cells were pre-incubated with Erns. It is proposed that the cluster of basic residues (480KKLENKSK487) localized at the C-terminal end of Erns constitutes a GAG-binding site.

Abstract

Resting dendritic cells (DCs) are resident in most tissues and can be activated by environmental stimuli to mature into potent antigen-presenting cells. One important stimulus for DC activation is infection; DCs can be triggered through receptors that recognize microbial components directly or by contact with infection-induced cytokines. We show here that murine DCs undergo phenotypic maturation upon exposure to type I interferons (type I IFNs) in vivo or in vitro. Moreover, DCs either derived from bone marrow cells in vitro or isolated from the spleens of normal animals express IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, suggesting that type I IFNs can act in an autocrine manner to activate DCs. Consistent with this idea, the ability to respond to type I IFN was required for the generation of fully activated DCs from bone marrow precursors, as DCs derived from the bone marrow of mice lacking a functional receptor for type I IFN had reduced expression of costimulatory and adhesion molecules and a diminished ability to stimulate naive T-cell proliferation compared with DCs derived from control bone marrow. Furthermore, the addition of neutralizing anti-IFN-alpha/beta antibody to purified splenic DCs in vitro partially blocked the "spontaneous" activation of these cells, inhibiting the upregulation of costimulatory molecules, secretion of IFN-gamma, and T-cell stimulatory activity. These results show that DCs both secrete and respond to type I IFN, identifying type I interferons as autocrine DC activators.

Abstract

Inoculation of sheep with Ehrlichia (previously Cowdria) ruminantium which has been cultivated in mammalian endothelial cell cultures is almost always followed by a severe clinical reaction, whereas inoculation of the agent cultivated in tick cell lines usually does not provoke a clinical response, but may result in seroconversion and/or protection against subsequent challenge with virulent stabilates. A quantitative, real-time PCR assay was developed to determine the kinetics of infection (rickettsaemia) in sheep inoculated with tick cell- and mammalian cell- derived E. ruminantium (Gardel isolate). The method and initial results are described, and the significance of the findings is discussed in relation to the clinical responses of the sheep.

Abstract

A comparison of the longitudinal cytokine responses of cattle to infection with intracellular Mycobacterium bovis and extracellular Onchocerca ochengi illustrates the development of reciprocal interferon-? and interleukin-4 responses, which result ultimately in an infection-induced type-1 or type-2 polarization, respectively. These kinetic studies of natural host–pathogen relationships show that the cytokine responses to infection fluctuate over time, resulting in periods of polarization and nonpolarization before the establishment of a chronic infection. Here, we discuss our data from cattle in the light of the current understanding of cytokine polarization towards infection in mouse models and humans.
Salguero F J, Ruiz-Villamor E, Bautista M J, Sanchez-Cordon P J, Carrasco L, Gomez-Villamandos J C (2002)

Changes in macrophages in spleen and lymph nodes during acute African swine fever: expression of cytokines

Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 90 (1-2), 11-22

Abstract

To gain further insight into the pathogenesis of African swine fever (ASF), the cytokine expression by macrophages in spleen and lymph nodes were examined. Twenty-one piglets were inoculated with the highly virulent isolate Spain-70 of ASF virus and killed in groups at 1-7 post-inoculation days (pid). An increase in the immunohistochemical detection of proinflammatory monokines in spleen and renal and gastrohepatic lymph nodes is reported, along with an increase in the serum levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. The expression of these cytokines is detected simultaneously in time and space with the viral protein 73 (vp73) of the ASF virus detection. Our results demonstrate that mononuclear phagocyte system cell activation results in the release of several cytokines that could induce apoptosis of lymphocytes and haemodynamic changes.

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