The Pirbright Institute publication directory contains details of selected publications written by our researchers.

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A 7-kb fragment of Streptomyces rochei A2 chromosomal DNA was cloned into pAT153 and shown to confer endoglucanase (Eg1S) activity on Escherichia coli cells. In E. coli clones, the Eg1S was secreted into the periplasm. Deletion analysis revealed that an 827-bp fragment was enough for the enzymatic activity. Sequence analysis showed that the 827-bp fragment codes for the catalytic domain of the enzyme. The complete sequence of the gene (eg1S) is 1149-bp long. A signal peptide, a catalytic domain and a cellulose-binding domain were identified from the nucleotide sequence, and the Eg1S found to belong to the family H of cellulase catalytic domains. These conclusions were substantiated by determination of the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein and zymogram analysis, which revealed protein species with a molecular mass equal to that deduced from the nt sequence analysis.
Tchilian E Z, Beverley P C L, Young B D, Watt S M (1994)

Molecular cloning of 2 isoforms of the murine homolog of the myeloid CD33 antigen

Blood 83 (11), 3188-3198


CD33 monoclonal antibodies recognize a 67-kD glycoprotein of unknown function that is expressed by early myeloid progenitors and their leukemic counterparts. We report here the cloning of the murine homolog of the human CD33 antigen. Two cDNA clones, differing by an 83- nucleotide insertion in the cytoplasmic region, were isolated. The insertion generated a shift in the reading frame within the cytoplasmic tail, resulting in two mouse CD33 isoforms, m33-A and m33-B, with distinct cytoplasmic domains and with predicted protein core molecular weights of 37 kD and 45 kD, respectively. The cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences show extensive similarity with the human CD33 sequence with the highest homology occurring in the first and second lg-like domains (61% amino acid identity). The most significant divergence between the human and murine proteins occurs in their cytoplasmic portions. The murine CD33 mRNAs were detected in bone marrow, spleen, thymus, brain, liver, the multipotential progenitor cell line, A4, the myelomonocytic cell line, WEHI3B, the myeloid cell line, M1, and the macrophage cell line, P388, by Northern blot analysis. The expression pattern of the murine CD33 homolog suggests that the function of CD33 antigen in hematopoiesis may be conserved between humans and mice.
Iqbal M, Mercer D, McCarthy A J, Miller P G G (1993)

Production and characterisation of extracellular peroxidases from thermophilic streptomycetes.

Plant Peroxidases : Biochemistry and Physiology. III International Symposium (edited by K.G. Welinder, S.K. Rasmussen, C. Penel and H. Greppin. University of Geneva), 97-102
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A good correlation exists between specific neutralising antibody titre and protection against challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in infected or virus-vaccinated cattle, but not in the case of animals immunised with synthetic FMDV peptides. Therefore, mechanisms other than simple neutralisation are likely to be important in vivo. Antibody affinity may influence the protective capacity of sera from immunised animals and experiments were carried out to measure the functional affinity for synthetic FMDV peptide of sera from guinea pigs and cattle given various synthetic vaccines. In guinea pigs given a single dose of synthetic vaccine, antibody affinity increased with time after immunisation. In cattle, however, administration of a second dose of peptide 21 days after the first markedly retarded the process of affinity maturation. For guinea pig sera of equivalent neutralising activity, those of higher functional affinity had higher protective indices than those of lower functional affinity. Knowledge of the importance of antibody affinity in protection against FMD is important for an improved understanding of the mechanisms of protection and for the design of novel vaccines.


An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sporozoite, schizont and piroplasm antigens was developed to study the immune response of animals that had been immunised with either Theileria annulata sporozoites or schizont-infected cells and then challenged with sporozoites. The aim was to identify the most suitable antigen for a routine screening test and to compare the sensitivity of the latter with that of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). As determined by ELISA, cattle produced antibodies to all three antigens, regardless of the method of immunisation. The schizont antigen was the least sensitive, whereas the sporozoite antigen displayed high pre-inoculation values. In contrast, the piroplasm antigen exhibited low non-specific pre-infection levels and high post-immunisation and post-challenge values according to both ELISA and IFAT. Therefore, the latter was thought to be the most appropriate antigen for use in ELISA.


This work extends basic knowledge of tropical theileriosis in taurine and crossbred cattle. Infection of Bos taurus and Bos taurus cross BON indicus (Sahiwal) calves with graded doses of sporozoites of Theileria annulata (Hissar), an Indian stock of the parasite, showed the following to be dose dependent in both cattle types: the time to appearance and population size of macroschizonts, microschizonts and piroplasms, time and severity of pyrexia, anaemia manifested by erythrocyte counts and haematocrit. All infections were accompanied by a prompt and severe panleucopenia. This effect was dose related in both the taurine and the Sahiwal crossbred calves. Lymphocyte counts returned to preinfection levels in the blood of animals which recovered, but death from theileriosis was characteristically accompanied by a persistent and severe lymphocytopenia. Flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies to bovine mononuclear cells was used to identify the lymphocyte subsets involved in lymphocytopenia. The outcome of infection was dose dependent in the crossbred calves but not in taurine calves. Although the results obtained did not differ qualitatively between the two cattle types, they provided some preliminary evidence for resistance to tropical theileriosis in Sahiwal crossbred calves.


The establishment of 5 continuous cell lines from embryonic tissues of H. a. anatolicum is reported. Each line comprises 2 or more cell types; they are maintained at 28 and 32°C in L-15/H-Lac medium with 20% fetal calf serum, and have been cryopreserved successfully. Sustained and consistent growth was achieved only after 12-41 months in culture.
Hadrill D J, Boid R, Jones T W, Bell-Sakyi L (1990)

Bovine babesiosis on Nevis - implications for tick control

Veterinary Record 126 (16), 403-404
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Walker A R, Fletcher J D, McKellar S B, Bell L J, Brown C G D (1985)

The maintenance and survival of Theileria annulata in colonies of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 79 (2), 199-209
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