This work extends basic knowledge of tropical theileriosis in taurine and crossbred cattle. Infection of Bos taurus and Bos taurus cross BON indicus (Sahiwal) calves with graded doses of sporozoites of Theileria annulata (Hissar), an Indian stock of the parasite, showed the following to be dose dependent in both cattle types: the time to appearance and population size of macroschizonts, microschizonts and piroplasms, time and severity of pyrexia, anaemia manifested by erythrocyte counts and haematocrit. All infections were accompanied by a prompt and severe panleucopenia. This effect was dose related in both the taurine and the Sahiwal crossbred calves. Lymphocyte counts returned to preinfection levels in the blood of animals which recovered, but death from theileriosis was characteristically accompanied by a persistent and severe lymphocytopenia. Flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies to bovine mononuclear cells was used to identify the lymphocyte subsets involved in lymphocytopenia. The outcome of infection was dose dependent in the crossbred calves but not in taurine calves. Although the results obtained did not differ qualitatively between the two cattle types, they provided some preliminary evidence for resistance to tropical theileriosis in Sahiwal crossbred calves.