The Pirbright Institute publication directory contains details of selected publications written by our researchers.

There were a total of 2087 results for your search.


Streptomyces thermoviolaceus is a thermophilic actinomycete that was found to produce relatively large amounts of extracellular peroxidase activity when grown on xylan as primary carbon source. The activity was due to multiple isoforms of peroxidase, of which two, designated P-3 and P-5, were predominant. The two proteins were purified to homogeneity by a combination of ultrafiltration, ammonium sulphate precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and preparative gel electrophoresis. The peroxidases were found to be haemoproteins that catalysed the oxidation of a range of substrates in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Both are monomeric acidic proteins (P-3: 82 kDa, pl 5.0; P-5: 60 kDa, pl 4.75) but with some differences in substrate specificity, P-3 exhibiting the broader substrate range. Peroxidase activity was optimal at ph values close to neutrality, and both enzymes were robust, exhibiting activity at elevated temperatures in the presence of denaturing agents such as SDS or 8 M urea. Peroxidase P-3 was stable at 50 degrees C for more than 24 h and had a half-life of 70 min at 70 degrees C. Polyclonal antibodies prepared against each isoform cross-reacted, indicating that the proteins were antigenically related. No cross-reactions were detected against horseradish peroxidase or crude peroxidase preparations from two other thermophilic streptomycetes.
Iqbal M, Mercer D, McCarthy A J, Miller P G G (1993)

Production and characterisation of extracellular peroxidases from thermophilic streptomycetes.

Plant Peroxidases : Biochemistry and Physiology. III International Symposium (edited by K.G. Welinder, S.K. Rasmussen, C. Penel and H. Greppin. University of Geneva), 97-102
Publisher’s version:


A good correlation exists between specific neutralising antibody titre and protection against challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in infected or virus-vaccinated cattle, but not in the case of animals immunised with synthetic FMDV peptides. Therefore, mechanisms other than simple neutralisation are likely to be important in vivo. Antibody affinity may influence the protective capacity of sera from immunised animals and experiments were carried out to measure the functional affinity for synthetic FMDV peptide of sera from guinea pigs and cattle given various synthetic vaccines. In guinea pigs given a single dose of synthetic vaccine, antibody affinity increased with time after immunisation. In cattle, however, administration of a second dose of peptide 21 days after the first markedly retarded the process of affinity maturation. For guinea pig sera of equivalent neutralising activity, those of higher functional affinity had higher protective indices than those of lower functional affinity. Knowledge of the importance of antibody affinity in protection against FMD is important for an improved understanding of the mechanisms of protection and for the design of novel vaccines.


An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sporozoite, schizont and piroplasm antigens was developed to study the immune response of animals that had been immunised with either Theileria annulata sporozoites or schizont-infected cells and then challenged with sporozoites. The aim was to identify the most suitable antigen for a routine screening test and to compare the sensitivity of the latter with that of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). As determined by ELISA, cattle produced antibodies to all three antigens, regardless of the method of immunisation. The schizont antigen was the least sensitive, whereas the sporozoite antigen displayed high pre-inoculation values. In contrast, the piroplasm antigen exhibited low non-specific pre-infection levels and high post-immunisation and post-challenge values according to both ELISA and IFAT. Therefore, the latter was thought to be the most appropriate antigen for use in ELISA.


This work extends basic knowledge of tropical theileriosis in taurine and crossbred cattle. Infection of Bos taurus and Bos taurus cross BON indicus (Sahiwal) calves with graded doses of sporozoites of Theileria annulata (Hissar), an Indian stock of the parasite, showed the following to be dose dependent in both cattle types: the time to appearance and population size of macroschizonts, microschizonts and piroplasms, time and severity of pyrexia, anaemia manifested by erythrocyte counts and haematocrit. All infections were accompanied by a prompt and severe panleucopenia. This effect was dose related in both the taurine and the Sahiwal crossbred calves. Lymphocyte counts returned to preinfection levels in the blood of animals which recovered, but death from theileriosis was characteristically accompanied by a persistent and severe lymphocytopenia. Flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies to bovine mononuclear cells was used to identify the lymphocyte subsets involved in lymphocytopenia. The outcome of infection was dose dependent in the crossbred calves but not in taurine calves. Although the results obtained did not differ qualitatively between the two cattle types, they provided some preliminary evidence for resistance to tropical theileriosis in Sahiwal crossbred calves.


The establishment of 5 continuous cell lines from embryonic tissues of H. a. anatolicum is reported. Each line comprises 2 or more cell types; they are maintained at 28 and 32°C in L-15/H-Lac medium with 20% fetal calf serum, and have been cryopreserved successfully. Sustained and consistent growth was achieved only after 12-41 months in culture.
Hadrill D J, Boid R, Jones T W, Bell-Sakyi L (1990)

Bovine babesiosis on Nevis - implications for tick control

Veterinary Record 126 (16), 403-404
Publisher’s version:
Walker A R, Fletcher J D, McKellar S B, Bell L J, Brown C G D (1985)

The maintenance and survival of Theileria annulata in colonies of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum

Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 79 (2), 199-209
Publisher’s version:


Filter Publications

Trim content

® The Pirbright Institute 2020 | A company limited by guarantee, registered in England no. 559784. The Institute is also a registered charity.