Review: lumpy skin disease: an emerging threat to Europe, the Middle East and Asia
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically devastating emerging viral disease of cattle. Lumpy skin disease is currently endemic in most African countries and has recently spread out of Africa into the Middle East region. In this article, we review the putative mechanisms of spread of LSD into the Middle East and the risks of further spread into Turkey, Europe and Asia. We also review the latest findings on the epidemiology of LSD, its mechanisms of transmission, the potential role of wildlife in its maintenance and spread and the diagnostic tests and control methods currently available.