Phylogeography of foot-and-mouth disease virus types O and A in Malaysia and surrounding countries

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in the countries of mainland Southeast Asia where it represents a major obstacle to the development of productive animal industries. The aim of this study was to use genetic data to determine the distribution of FMD virus (FMDV) lineages in the Southeast Asia region, and in particular identify possible sources of FMDV causing outbreaks in Malaysia. Complete VP1 sequences, obtained from 214 samples collected between 2000 and 2009, from FMD outbreaks in six Southeast Asian countries, were compared with sequences previously reported. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that there were two patterns of FMDV distribution in Malaysia. Firstly, for some lineages (O/SEA/Mya98 and serotype A), outbreaks occurred every year in the country and did not appear to persist, suggesting that these incursions were quickly eradicated. Furthermore, for these lineages FMD viruses in Malaysia were closely related to those from neighbouring countries, demonstrating the close epidemiological links between countries in the region. In contrast, for O/ME-SA/PanAsia lineage, viruses were introduced and remained to cause outbreaks in subsequent years. In particular, the recent incursion and maintenance of the PanAsia-2 sublineage into Malaysia appears to be unique and independent from other outbreaks in the region. This study is the first characterisation of FMDV in Malaysia and provides evidence for different epidemiological sources of virus introduction into the country.

Trim content

® The Pirbright Institute 2024 | A company limited by guarantee, registered in England no. 559784. The Institute is also a registered charity.