Nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) contributes little to protection against aerosol challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis after immunisation with a recombinant adenoviral vaccine

Intra-nasal administration of a recombinant adenovirus expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85A (Ad85A) has been shown to provide protection against challenge with M. tuberculosis. However the role of the upper respiratory tract associated lymphoid tissue, specifically the nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), in providing protection has yet to be elucidated. Here we administered Ad85A to BALB/c mice alone or following BCG priming, using intranasal inocula targeting the whole respiratory tract or only the NALT, to show that Ad85A induces an immune response in the NALT insufficient to provide protection. Rather, Ad85A delivered through the respiratory tract must induce a deep lung immune response in order to protect against M. tuberculosis.

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