Modulation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in antigen-presenting cells by bovine respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic protein

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an important cause of respiratory disease in young cattle and is closely related to human RSV (HRSV), which causes severe respiratory disease in infants and the elderly. The RSV genome encodes a small hydrophobic (SH) protein with viroporin activity. Previous studies have shown that recombinant BRSV lacking the SH gene (rBRSVDeltaSH) is attenuated in the lungs, but not in the upper respiratory tract, of calves and mucosal vaccination with rBRSVDeltaSH induced long-lasting protective immunity. Attenuation of rBRSVDeltaSH may be due to the ability of this virus to induce an early innate response as rBRSVDeltaSH induces higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than wild-type (wt) rBRSV. In this study, we investigated the effects of the BRSV SH protein on NF-kappaB p65 phosphorylation, a master step in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Expression of SH resulted in the inhibition of NF-kappaB p65 phosphorylation in response to BRSV infection and extracellular lipopolysaccharide, and a reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, rBRSVDeltaSH does not inhibit NF-kappaB p65 phosphorylation in bovine antigen-presenting cells, including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, resulting in increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased activation of T cells compared to cells infected with wt BRSV. These findings highlight an important role for the BRSV SH protein in immune modulation.

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