Measles is a highly infectious viral disease that continues to be a challenge for many countries worldwide. Although significant improvements have been observed since the introduction of vaccines, measles remains endemic in Romania. Contributing factors include vaccine hesitancy, difficulties in delivering doses to the population, and even the lack of sufficient vaccine supplies. These problems are further exacerbated by an inadequate implementation of public health measures, ranging from inefficient communication programs to the absence of a legislative framework concerning immunization. Moreover, many of the recent outbreaks were associated with chains of transmission in other countries, thus making the control of measles in Romania relevant at an international level. As many difficulties exist, understanding the key factors that limit the success of public health programs may provide guidance in shaping future strategies. Because similar issues are being faced in various other countries, the management of measles in Romania offers valuable lessons for researchers and policy-makers alike.