Local and systemic T cell immunity in fighting pig viral and bacterial infections

T cells are an essential component of the adaptive immune system. Over the last 15 years, a constantly growing toolbox with which to study T cell biology in pigs has allowed detailed investigations on these cells in various viral and bacterial infections. This review provides an overview on porcine CD4, CD8, and γδ T cells and the current knowledge on the differentiation of these cells following antigen encounter. Where available, the responses of these cells to viral infections like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, classical swine fever virus, swine influenza A virus, and African swine fever virus are outlined. In addition, knowledge on the porcine T cell response to bacterial infections like Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Salmonella Typhimurium is reviewed. For CD4 T cells, the response to the outlined infections is reflected toward the Th1/Th2/Th17/Tfh/Treg paradigm for functional differentiation.

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