The evolution, spread and global threat of H6Nx avian influenza viruses

Avian influenza viruses of the subtype H6Nx are being detected globally with increasing frequency. Some H6Nx lineages are becoming enzootic in Asian poultry and sporadic incursions into European poultry are occurring more frequently. H6Nx viruses that contain mammalian adaptation motifs pose a zoonotic threat and have caused human cases. Although currently understudied globally, H6Nx avian influenza viruses pose a substantial threat to both poultry and human health. In this review we examine the current state of knowledge of H6Nx viruses including their global distribution, tropism, transmission routes and human health risk.

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