The emergence and zoonotic transmission of H10Nx avian influenza virus infections

Avian influenza viruses pose a continuous threat to both poultry and human health, with significant economic impact. The ability of viruses to reassort and jump the species barrier into mammalian hosts generates a constant pandemic threat. H10Nx avian viruses have been shown to replicate in mammalian species without prior adaptation and have caused significant human infection and fatalities. They are able to rapidly reassort with circulating poultry strains and go undetected due to their low pathogenicity in chickens. Novel detections of both human reassortant strains and increasing endemicity of H10Nx poultry infections highlight the increasing need for heightened surveillance and greater understanding of the distribution, tropism, and infection capabilities of these viruses. In this minireview, we highlight the gap in the current understanding of this subtype and its prevalence across a vast range of host species and geographical locations.

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