Development and laboratory evaluation of a lateral flow device for the detection of swine vesicular disease virus in clinical samples

A lateral flow device (LFD) for the detection of swine vesicular disease (SVD) virus (SVDV) and differential diagnosis from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was developed using a monoclonal antibody (Mab C70). The performance of the LFD was evaluated in the laboratory on suspensions of vesicular epithelia and cell culture passage derived supernatants of SVDV and porcine teschovirus (enterovirus; PEV). The collection of test samples included 157 which were positive for SVDV (84 vesicular epithelial suspensions and 73 cell culture antigens) from suspected cases of vesicular disease in pigs collected from 14 countries between 1966 and 2008 and 663 samples which were either shown to be negative for SVDV and FMD virus (FMDV) or else collected from healthy pigs or demonstrated to be positive for FMDV, PEV or vesicular exanthema (VEV) and collected from 16 countries between 1965 and 2008 or else were derived from experimental animals. Three further samples containing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) were also tested. The diagnostic sensitivity of the LFD for SVDV was similar at 82% compared to 86% obtained by the reference method of antigen ELISA, and the diagnostic specificity was 100% compared to 99.7% for the ELISA. The device recognized virus strains of each of the known genotypes of the sole SVDV serotype. Reactions with FMDV, VEV, VSV and PEV which can produce clinically indistinguishable syndromes in pigs, did not occur. These data illustrate the potential for the LFD to be used next to the animal for providing rapid and objective support to veterinarians in their clinical judgment of vesicular disease in pigs and for the specific pen-side diagnosis of SVD and differential diagnosis from FMD.

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