Comparison of the epidemiology of epizootic haemorrhagic disease and bluetongue viruses in dairy cattle in Israel
An outbreak of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in cattle in Israel in 2006 enabled a comparison of the spatial distribution of epidemic exposure to EHDV with that of exposure to bluetongue virus (BTV), which is endemic in the country. The seroprevalence of both viruses was examined in 1650 serum samples collected from 139 farms representative of the spatial distribution of dairy cattle in Israel. A significant association between exposure to EHDV and BTV was demonstrated in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Recent exposure to BTV and EHDV (demonstrated by seroprevalence in calves) was clustered in different geographical locations, indicating that the two viruses had different patterns of spread, that of EHDV being influenced by winds and terrain barriers and that of BTV by herd immunity.