Bovine pestivirus heterogeneity and its potential impact on vaccination and diagnosis

Bovine Pestiviruses A and B, formerly known as bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV)-1 and 2, respectively, are important pathogens of cattle worldwide, responsible for significant economic losses. Bovine viral diarrhoea control programmes are in effect in several high-income countries but less so in low- and middle-income countries where bovine pestiviruses are not considered in disease control programmes. However, bovine pestiviruses are genetically and antigenically diverse, which affects the efficiency of the control programmes. The emergence of atypical ruminant pestiviruses (Pestivirus H or BVDV-3) from various parts of the world and the detection of Pestivirus D (border disease virus) in cattle highlights the challenge that pestiviruses continue to pose to control measures including the development of vaccines with improved crossprotective potential and enhanced diagnostics. This review examines the effect of bovine pestivirus diversity and emergence of atypical pestiviruses in disease control by vaccination and diagnosis.

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