Analysis of immune responses induced by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli infection in turkeys and their association with resistance to homologous re-challenge
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause severe respiratory and systemic disease in poultry yet the nature and consequences of host immune responses to infection are poorly understood. Here, we describe a turkey sub-acute respiratory challenge model and cytokine, cell-mediated and humoral responses associated with protection against homologous re-challenge. Intra-airsac inoculation of turkeys with 105 colony-forming units of APEC O78:H9 strain chi7122nalR induced transient and mild clinical signs of colibacillosis followed by clearance of the bacteria from the lungs and visceral organs. Upon re-challenge with 107 chi7122nalR, primed birds were solidly protected against clinical signs and exhibited negligible bacterial loads in visceral organs, whereas age-matched control birds exhibited high lesion scores and bacterial loads in the organs. Levels of mRNA for signature cytokines suggested induction of a Th1 response in the lung, whereas a distinct anti-inflammatory cytokine profile was detected in the liver. Proliferative responses of splenocytes to either Concanavalin A or soluble chi7122nalR antigens were negligible prior to clearance of bacteria, but APEC-specific responses were significantly elevated at later time intervals and at re-challenge relative to control birds. Primary infection also induced significantly elevated chi7122nalR-specific serum IgY and bile IgA responses which were bactericidal against chi7122nalR and an isogenic Deltarfb mutant. Bactericidal activity was observed in the presence of immune, but not heat-inactivated immune serum, indicating that the antibodies can fix complement and are not directed solely at the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen. Such data inform the rational design of strategies to control a recalcitrant endemic disease of poultry.