Vitamin D3 modulates the function of chicken macrophages
Vitamin D3 is known to modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses in mammals, but there is little information on its effects on avian immune system cells. Here, we studied the effects of vitamin D3 on chicken macrophages. Chicken macrophages expressed vitamin D receptor (VDR) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation increased their VDR expression. Macrophages were treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 in the presence or absence of Toll-like receptor ligands, such as LPS and Pam3CSK4. Subsequently, macrophage activation was assessed by measuring nitric oxide (NO) and expression of CXCL8 and interleukin (IL)-1?. In addition, changes in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II and CD86 were examined. Treatment of cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 increased the ability of macrophages to respond to stimuli and produce NO, but vitamin D3 alone did not activate macrophages and resulted in the down-regulation of CD86, MHC-II, CXCL8 and IL-1?. These findings suggest that vitamin D3 has an immunomodulatory role in chicken macrophages.